When you decompress the package you downloaded on your system, you will find all the. Important note for Ubuntu users : The contrib-plugins package for debian can not be used on Ubuntu I build the package against hunspell from atomicorp. Other packages if available might also work. For older release versions please check here. Home Features Downloads Forums Wiki. We could use an extra Mac developer or two to work on Mac compatibility issues.
Build system Code::Blocks implements a custom build system with very important features: ultra-fast dependencies generation, build queues and parallel builds are the most important ones to mention. When launched, the app loads the Flutter library. Any rendering, input or event handling, and so on, is delegated to the compiled Flutter and app code. This is similar to the way many game engines work.
Any rendering, input or event handling, and so on, are delegated to the compiled Flutter and app code. We hope that the end-result is higher quality apps. If we reused the OEM widgets, the quality and performance of Flutter apps would be limited by the quality of those widgets. Moreover, two widgets authored by different people can coordinate to disambiguate gestures. Modern app design trends point towards designers and users wanting more motion-rich UIs and brand-first designs.
In order to achieve that level of customized, beautiful design, Flutter is architectured to drive pixels instead of the OEM widgets. By using a single language, a single framework, and a single set of libraries for all of your UI regardless if your UI is different for each mobile platform or largely consistent , we also aim to help lower app development and maintenance costs.
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The Flutter team watches the adoption and demand for new mobile widgets from iOS and Android, and aims to work with the community to build support for new widgets. This work might come in the form of lower-level framework features, new composable widgets, or new widget implementations. We looked at a lot of languages and runtimes, and ultimately adopted Dart for the framework and widgets. Flutter used four primary dimensions for evaluation, and considered the needs of framework authors, developers, and end users.
We found some languages met some requirements, but Dart scored highly on all of our evaluation dimensions and met all our requirements and criteria. Dart runtimes and compilers support the combination of two critical features for Flutter: a JIT-based fast development cycle that allows for shape changing and stateful hot reloads in a language with types, plus an Ahead-of-Time compiler that emits efficient ARM code for fast startup and predictable performance of production deployments.
In addition, we have the opportunity to work closely with the Dart community, which is actively investing resources in improving Dart for use in Flutter. For example, when we adopted Dart, the language did not have an ahead-of-time toolchain for producing native binaries, which is instrumental in achieving predictable, high performance, but now the language does because the Dart team built it for Flutter.
Developer productivity. Using a highly productive language accelerates developers further and makes Flutter more attractive. This was very important to both our framework team as well as our developers. The industry has multiple decades of experience building user interface frameworks in object-oriented languages. While we could use a non-object-oriented language, this would mean reinventing the wheel to solve several hard problems. Plus, the vast majority of developers have experience with object-oriented development, making it easier to learn how to develop with Flutter.
Predictable, high performance. With Flutter, we want to empower developers to create fast, fluid user experiences. In order to achieve that, we need to be able to run a significant amount of end-developer code during every animation frame. That means we need a language that both delivers high performance and delivers predictable performance, without periodic pauses that would cause dropped frames. Fast allocation.
The Flutter framework uses a functional-style flow that depends heavily on the underlying memory allocator efficiently handling small, short-lived allocations. This style was developed in languages with this property and does not work efficiently in languages that lack this facility.
Flutter should be able to run most Dart code that does not import transitively, or directly dart:mirrors or dart:html. In July , we measured the download size of a minimal Flutter app no Material Components, just a single Center widget, built with flutter build apk --split-per-abi , bundled and compressed as a release APK, to be approximately 4. In ARM, the core engine is approximately 3. In ARM64, the core engine is approximately 3. These numbers were measured using apkanalyzer , which is also built into Android Studio. Of course, YMMV, and we recommend that you measure your own app.
To measure an Android app, run flutter build apk using the new --split-per-abi option in version 1.
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You can expect excellent performance. Flutter is designed to help developers easily achieve a constant 60fps. Flutter apps run via natively compiled code—no interpreters are involved. This means Flutter apps start quickly. Flutter implements a hot reload developer cycle. This means you can quickly iterate on a screen deeply nested in your app, without starting from the home screen after every reload.
This includes not only adding new classes, but also adding methods and fields to existing classes, and changing existing functions.
A few types of code changes cannot be hot reloaded though:. We believe Flutter works well on tablets. We do not currently implement all of the tablet-specific adaptations recommended by Material Design, though we are planning further investment in this area. Flutter web is currently in technical preview. We are developing Flutter for web in a fork of the Flutter repo. This enables fast iterations while keeping the core Flutter repo stable. Check out the web instructions for more details. Our current progress is documented on our wiki. Yes, you can embed a Flutter view in your existing Android for this use case see issue for details.
Some initial documentation is available in the wiki page Add Flutter to existing apps. Flutter gives developers out-of-the-box access to some platform-specific services and APIs from the operating system. A number of platform services and APIs have ready-made packages available in the Pub site. Using an existing package is easy.
Developers can expose as much or as little of the platform APIs as they need, and build layers of abstractions that are a best fit for their project. Rather than having each widget provide a large number of parameters, Flutter embraces composition. Widgets are built out of smaller widgets that you can reuse and combine in novel ways to make custom widgets. For example, rather than subclassing a generic button widget, RaisedButton combines a Material widget with a GestureDetector widget.
The Material widget provides the visual design and the GestureDetector widget provides the interaction design. To create a button with a custom visual design, you can combine widgets that implement your visual design with a GestureDetector, which provides the interaction design. For example, CupertinoButton follows this approach and combines a GestureDetector with several other widgets that implement its visual design.
Composition gives you maximum control over the visual and interaction design of your widgets while also allowing a large amount of code reuse. You can remix these widgets however you like to make your own custom widgets that have full range of expression. You can choose to implement different app layouts for iOS and Android. Developers are free to check the mobile OS at runtime and render different layouts, though we find this practice to be rare. More and more, we see mobile app layouts and designs evolving to be more brand-driven and unified across platforms.
For example, app designs often require custom fonts, colors, shapes, motion, and more in order to clearly convey their brand identity. We also see common layout patterns deployed across iOS and Android. There seems to be a convergence of design ideas across mobile platforms. This is enabled via a flexible message passing style where a Flutter app might send and receive messages to the mobile platform using a BasicMessageChannel.
Learn more about accessing platform and third-party services in Flutter with platform channels. Here is an example project that shows how to use a platform channel to access battery state information on iOS and Android. Because Flutter apps are pre-compiled for production, and binary size is always a concern with mobile apps, we disabled dart:mirrors. Learn more about i18n and l10n in the internationalization tutorial. Learn more about a11y in the accessibility documentation. Flutter supports isolates.
Isolates communicate by sending and receiving asynchronous messages. Flutter does not currently have a shared-memory parallelism solution, although we are evaluating solutions for this. Check out an example of using isolates with Flutter. Yes, you can run Dart code in a background process on both iOS and Android. A release build is usually much smaller than a debug build. Learn more about creating a release build of your Android app , and creating a release build of your iOS app.
We have seen Flutter apps run on some Chromebooks.
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We are tracking issues related to running Flutter on Chromebooks. You can read a more detailed discussion on the API docs for State. Flutter does not ship with a declarative markup. We found that UIs dynamically built with code allow for more flexibility. For example, we have found it difficult for a rigid markup system to express and produce customized widgets with bespoke behaviours. It is possible to create a custom language that is then converted to widgets on the fly. By default flutter run command uses the debug build configuration. The debug configuration runs your Dart code in a VM Virtual Machine enabling a fast development cycle with hot reload release builds are compiled using the standard Android and iOS toolchains.
The debug configuration also checks all asserts, which helps you catch errors early during development, but imposes a runtime cost. You can run your app without these checks by using either the --profile or --release flag to flutter run.
Concurrency Programming Guide
Flutter is a multi-paradigm programming environment. Many programming techniques developed over the past few decades are used in Flutter.
We use each one where we believe the strengths of the technique make it particularly well-suited. In no particular order:. Composition: The primary paradigm used by Flutter is that of using small objects with narrow scopes of behavior, composed together to obtain more complicated effects.
Most widgets in the Flutter widget library are built in this way. The InkWell is built using a GestureDetector. And so on. Functional programming: Entire applications can be built with only StatelessWidget s, which are essentially functions that describe how arguments map to other functions, bottoming out in primitives that compute layouts or paint graphics. For example, the Icon widget is essentially a function that maps its arguments color , icon , size into layout primitives. Additionally, heavy use is made of immutable data structures, including the entire Widget class hierarchy as well as numerous supporting classes such as Rect and TextStyle.
Event-driven programming: User interactions are represented by event objects that are dispatched to callbacks registered with event handlers.
Grand Central Dispatch - Wikipedia
Screen updates are triggered by a similar callback mechanism. The Listenable class, which is used as the basis of the animation system, formalizes a subscription model for events with multiple listeners. Class-based object-oriented programming: Most of the APIs of the framework are built using classes with inheritance. We use an approach whereby we define very high-level APIs in our base classes, then specialize them iteratively in subclasses. Prototype-based object-oriented programming: The ScrollPhysics class chains instances to compose the physics that apply to scrolling dynamically at runtime.
This lets the system compose, for example, paging physics with platform-specific physics, without the platform having to be selected at compile time. Imperative programming: Straightforward imperative programming, usually paired with state encapsulated within an object, is used where it provides the most intuitive solution. For example, tests are written in an imperative style, first describing the situation under test, then listing the invariants that the test must match, then advancing the clock or inserting events as necessary for the test. Aspects of both functional-reactive and imperative-reactive are present in the framework, depending on the needs of the widgets.
Widgets with build methods that consist of just an expression describing how the widget reacts to changes in its configuration are functional reactive widgets e. Widgets whose build methods construct a list of children over several statements, describing how the widget reacts to changes in its configuration, are imperative reactive widgets e.